Probably, lace was known in Russia in sixteen cent., as in the end of 17nth. cent., and later was widely used, forming a new type of decorative applied art. Coming from Western Europe, Russian lacemaking has not only preserved and developed the best traditions of lacemakers in European countries, but has become a genuine national art form.
The prevalent kind of lace was the passementerie or metallic lace, made of silk thread entwined with thin wire of plain or gilt silver, very expensive, so only the Tsar’s family and his court could wear.
This type of lace was quickly mastered in the Tsarina’s Sewing Rooms and those of the rich houses in Moscow. Unfortunately only a few examples have come down to us. Lace insertions of women’s and men’s attire were often decorated with scalloped laces and pearls. The combination, of metallic lace and precious stones or pearls maybe considered a typical characteristic of lacemaking in the early period.
By eighteen cent., certain patterns became common and new technical methods were developed. Flat sided metallic thread was introduced to brighten the effect. Ornamental compositions featuring the figures so characteristic of folk art appeared. These flourished for almost two hundred years, up to the late 19nth. cent., when metallic laces finally went out of fashion. Metallic laces were gradually replaced by linen and silks. New styles were imported from Western Europe due to Peter’s the Great reforms. Fashion demanded other uses of lace trimming, such as neckerchiefs, scarves, ties, flounces, jabots and gathered lace cuffs.
At this time a lace company was opened in Moscow and lacemakers from Brabant were invited to supervise the work. Soon the lacemakers were making lace to order and by the middle of the 18nth. Cent., Russia had sufficient number of qualified lacemakers to satisfy the demand.
In first half of nineteen cent., appeared a new type of bobbin lace, with the design carried out with heavier thread for a cleaner definition. Worthy of special note is lace from Torzhok, distinguished by original motifs with figures holding horses, birds or sailboats, themes always connected with traditional Russian embroidery. From 1825 until mid-century, blonde laces were fashionable. These were soft, shimmering, lustrous silk laces with floral designs or raw silk on a thin mesh background. The silk was imported, and genuine blonde lace was produced only by serf-lacemakers or well to do landowners. Others were content to copy these in linen thread.
Along nineteen cent., new companies were created in remote regions of the country as Vologda, Kirov, Yelets and Riazan and by early twenty cent., the companies that were dedicated to laces occupied up to 100.000 lacemakers. Yelets (Orel province) held first place in lace production, Vologda was second. The appearance of lace changed according with external influences and fashion. In large Russian towns, part lace had individual features reflecting the locality from which it came. Vologda part lace was characterized by a greater density of design. Outlined the motifs in thick thread, and network details only appeared in the mid of eighteen cent.,changing in late nineteen cent., to typical cloth work bands flowing from one figure to another, and forming a harmonious and complicated rhythm.
The airy lightness and the characteristic geometrical and floral designs of Yelet’s lace do not lose passing time. Instead of linen, thin cotton thread was used, which impaired to a certain degree the quality of lace. Made to order Yelets scarves and shawls were famous by their imaginative designs and meticulous execution. Lacemakers used part-lace technique.
At the time of Mechlin lace spread in Europe, in Russia was applied the name to a mixed type of lace with the design formed in thick thread on tulle background, with small and compact details and floral ornament.
Another type of lace came into fashion, which was called “Russian Valenciennes” (after the famous French type, a straight edged lace with a diamond mesh ground and a pattern of scrolls and flowers without gimp). This lace was in great demand, but it was only made in Orel Province.
The variety of types of lace made at this time shows that lace making in Russia, continued developing during the whole of the nineteen cent. Two centers showed great originality in their works. The first was the town of Mikhailov (Riazan). The lacemakers adopted a patternless method. They worked without a set pattern, from memory, pieces decorative and colorful, with geometrical motifs, as to decorate peasant costumes, household use and especially towels. The cotton gimp on plain linen background created a delicate combination of two shades of white, or in color. The second of the two centers was not far from St. Petersburg. They have no contact with other lacemaking centers excepting Vologda. This isolation led to the creation of an individual style. The lace was made without pattern and designed a stock of about thirty motifs that they reproduced from memory. Fancy figures were formed of scallops.
Last years of nineteen cent., Russian laces came into fashion in Western Europe. They were constantly shown at exhibitions. However, the growing demand for it was very difficult to satisfy, as there was no organization to supervise lacemaking in Russia. The industry expanded but this could not ensure high quality. Linen thread was gradually changed by cotton, which was cheaper.
By year 1900, the women lacemakers were exploited by their employers, who paid them a mere pittance (the abolishment of serfdom was carried out in the year 1861). As the lace was from hand to hand, its price rose three times over.
Although the schools played a positive role in the development of lacemaking, radical changes were necessary in the whole system of lace production. This reorganization took place in the first years of the Soviet power. Thus, the first cooperative aroused in Vologda in 1917. Started then new work associations, in other traditional lacemaking centers.
After organizational question were settled, measures were taken in order to improve techniques. Various refresher courses were offered to working lacemakers and they were trained in three newly opened industrial art schools: in Vologda, Yelets and Leningrado.
Art laboratories were organized to control quality of design and to produce new patterns for articles of mass production. By the middle of 1930’s the lace industry had a sufficient number of qualified lacemakers, designers and experienced administrators.
Most of lace producing was affected by Second World War in 1941, but the lace production in Vologda got over as it had not suffered seriously during the war. On the post-war period the pieces created were devoted to themes of war and peace constructive labor, and appeared monumental decorative panels designed by outstanding designers as Elena Grabovnikova, Ana Korabliova, Nina Simakina or Tamara Vaniukova.
The versatile talent of one of the oldest Vologda designers, Kapitolina Isakova, finds a brilliant expression in multicolored compositions, using motifs of the North of Russia and narrative subject panels. As director of the Vologda Industrial Art School, she trained more than one generation of skilled craftswomen.
Here it is a chronological slideshow. It can be appreciated the evolution of laces in Russia. To watch the slides easier, please pass through the slides with your mouse